War and Insurrection (37) - FinalOf course, Bazille never returned to Paris. In his last letter to his parents, he wrote: "We are going to leave in four minutes. Apparently the enemy is nearby. I have just a few minutes to grab something to eat. I feel great. I may finally get to see a Prussian".  
Frédéric Bazille, Autoportrait (Self-portrait), 1865-66. Oil on canvas, 108.9 x 71.1 cm. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

War and Insurrection (37) - Final
Of course, Bazille never returned to Paris. In his last letter to his parents, he wrote: "We are going to leave in four minutes. Apparently the enemy is nearby. I have just a few minutes to grab something to eat. I feel great. I may finally get to see a Prussian".  

Frédéric Bazille, Autoportrait (Self-portrait), 1865-66. Oil on canvas, 108.9 x 71.1 cm. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

War and Insurrection (36) - Return to ParisMonet also returned to Paris in the autumn. He and Camille had left England late May already, but first made a detour via Holland. On 2 June, they arrived in Zaandam, a remote town he had heard of from Pissarro, Daubigny and Jongkind. Months and many Dutch paintings later, presumably early November, the Monet’s registered in a hotel in front of the Gare de Saint-Lazare. Monet immediately reconnected with his good friend Pissarro.The first scene he painted was this Pont Neuf in late autumn rain.
Claude Monet, Le Pont Neuf, 1871. Oil on canvas, 51.6 x 72.4 cm. Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas TX, USA

War and Insurrection (36) - Return to Paris
Monet also returned to Paris in the autumn. He and Camille had left England late May already, but first made a detour via Holland. On 2 June, they arrived in Zaandam, a remote town he had heard of from Pissarro, Daubigny and Jongkind. Months and many Dutch paintings later, presumably early November, the Monet’s registered in a hotel in front of the Gare de Saint-Lazare. Monet immediately reconnected with his good friend Pissarro.
The first scene he painted was this Pont Neuf in late autumn rain.

Claude Monet, Le Pont Neuf, 1871. Oil on canvas, 51.6 x 72.4 cm. Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas TX, USA

War and Insurrection (35) - Return to ParisCézanne had been a draft dodger during the war, hiding in the deep south of France. He returned to Paris in October 1871, when the city had cooled. For a short while, he and his pregnant future wife Hortense Fiquet, lodged with Philippe Solari on Rue de Chevreuse 5, before they found a very little second floor apartment on Rue de Jussieu 45. From their window, they had this view on the wine depot (Halle aux Vins).
Paul Cézanne, Le dépot de vin, vu de la Rue de Jussieu (The Wine Depot, seen from the Rue Jussieu), 1872. Oil on canvas, 73 x 92.1 cm. Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon

War and Insurrection (35) - Return to Paris
Cézanne had been a draft dodger during the war, hiding in the deep south of France. He returned to Paris in October 1871, when the city had cooled. For a short while, he and his pregnant future wife Hortense Fiquet, lodged with Philippe Solari on Rue de Chevreuse 5, before they found a very little second floor apartment on Rue de Jussieu 45. From their window, they had this view on the wine depot (Halle aux Vins).

Paul Cézanne, Le dépot de vin, vu de la Rue de Jussieu (The Wine Depot, seen from the Rue Jussieu), 1872. Oil on canvas, 73 x 92.1 cm. Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon

War and Insurrection (34) - Return to ParisIn a letter of 10 June, Manet informed Morisot that her house in Passy had survived the war undamaged. But she seemed in no hurry to leave Cherbourg, where she was staying with her sister Edma. Manet had to wait until the autumn for her return.This is an aquarel that she made in those days. Could it be a portrait of her sister Edma?
Berthe Morisot, Sur le canapé (On the Sofa), 1871. Aquarel on paper, 18,1 x 14,1 cm. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden

War and Insurrection (34) - Return to Paris
In a letter of 10 June, Manet informed Morisot that her house in Passy had survived the war undamaged. But she seemed in no hurry to leave Cherbourg, where she was staying with her sister Edma. Manet had to wait until the autumn for her return.
This is an aquarel that she made in those days. Could it be a portrait of her sister Edma?

Berthe Morisot, Sur le canapé (On the Sofa), 1871. Aquarel on paper, 18,1 x 14,1 cm. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden

War and Insurrection (33) - Return to ParisSisley came back to Paris from his self chosen exile in London in March 1871, and almost immediately moved to Louveciennes, close to the Renoir family. In the spring he returned to his home in the hamlet of Louveciennes, where he had lived before the war, but found his studio destroyed. This explains the fact that so few works of him can be found from an earlier date than 1871.Again the Sisleys moved to a house close to the Renoir family home. He and Renoir regularly set out to the forest of Marly-le-Roy, while in Paris the Commune ruled, the Versailles army encircled the city and was about to defeat the insurrection.However, there’s not one sign of war in any of Sisley’s works…
Alfred Sisley, Rivière et le pont bateau à vapeur (River Steamboat and Bridge), 1871. Oil on canvas. Private collection

War and Insurrection (33) - Return to Paris
Sisley came back to Paris from his self chosen exile in London in March 1871, and almost immediately moved to Louveciennes, close to the Renoir family. In the spring he returned to his home in the hamlet of Louveciennes, where he had lived before the war, but found his studio destroyed. This explains the fact that so few works of him can be found from an earlier date than 1871.
Again the Sisleys moved to a house close to the Renoir family home. He and Renoir regularly set out to the forest of Marly-le-Roy, while in Paris the Commune ruled, the Versailles army encircled the city and was about to defeat the insurrection.
However, there’s not one sign of war in any of Sisley’s works…

Alfred SisleyRivière et le pont bateau à vapeur (River Steamboat and Bridge), 1871. Oil on canvas. Private collection

War and Insurrection (32) - Return to ParisEnd May 1870, Renoir managed to take refuge in Louveciennes during the brief government of the Paris Commune. Only two months later, the Communards were defeated by the government troops led by Marshal Patrice de MacMahon. By a conservative estimate 20.000 Parisians lost their lives in the streets.In June, Renoir returned to Paris and took a room in the rue Dragon, near the apartment of the musician, art collector and arts patron Edmond Maître. Perhaps this little portrait of the relaxing and reading Maître was the first oil that Renoir made after his return. 
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait d’Edmond Maître ou Le liseur (Portrait of Edmond Maître or The Reader), 1871. Oil on canvas, 22.2 x 28.9 cm. Private collection. 

War and Insurrection (32) - Return to Paris
End May 1870, Renoir managed to take refuge in Louveciennes during the brief government of the Paris Commune. Only two months later, the Communards were defeated by the government troops led by Marshal Patrice de MacMahon. By a conservative estimate 20.000 Parisians lost their lives in the streets.
In June, Renoir returned to Paris and took a room in the rue Dragon, near the apartment of the musician, art collector and arts patron Edmond Maître. Perhaps this little portrait of the relaxing and reading Maître was the first oil that Renoir made after his return. 

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait d’Edmond Maître ou Le liseur (Portrait of Edmond Maître or The Reader), 1871. Oil on canvas, 22.2 x 28.9 cm. Private collection. 

War and Insurrection (31) - Return to Paris
1 June 1871, Edgar Degas returned to Paris. Since the end of the war, he had been staying with the Valpinçons at their château in Ménil-Hubert-sur-Orne, Normandy. Paul Valpinçon was a lifelong friend of his, and a cousin of Gustave Caillebotte, which explains how Degas and Caillebotte met each other. Through Valpinçon, Degas also met Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, a neo-classical painter whom he worshiped, archconservative as he once was. 
Back in Paris, any influence that Ingres may have had on Degas’ work was fading away quickly. Look at one of the first works that he made after his return: the study of “Count Lépic and his daughters”. It has al the freshness of a first impression. A few years later, Lépic and his daughters appeared on “Place de la Concorde”. Any influence of Ingres has totally disappeared.

By the way, this Count Lépic, a ballet aficionado, may well have helped Degas to gain access to the backstage areas of the Rue Le Peletier Opéra, where he could see the ballerinas at work, whom he would so often paint and sculpt.

Edgar Degas, Vicomte Lépic et ses filles (Count Lépic and his daughters), c.1871. Oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm. Stiftung Sammlung E.G. Bührle, Zürich, Switzerland
Edgar Degas, Place de la Concorde, 1875. Oil on canvas, 78.4 x 117.5 cm. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

War and Insurrection (30) - Return to ParisLate June, the Pissarro’s returned from London to a scene of horror. Their house in Louveciennes was filthy beyond belief. Almost 1500 paintings had been used for all kind of purposes, and were destroyed in the process. Julie started to put the house in order, while Camille feverishly started painting scenes in the Louveciennes and Marly area again.
Camille Pissarro, Rue de Voisins, 1871. Oil on canvas, 46 x 55.5 cm. Manchester City Galleries, Manchester, UK

War and Insurrection (30) - Return to Paris
Late June, the Pissarro’s returned from London to a scene of horror. Their house in Louveciennes was filthy beyond belief. Almost 1500 paintings had been used for all kind of purposes, and were destroyed in the process. Julie started to put the house in order, while Camille feverishly started painting scenes in the Louveciennes and Marly area again.

Camille Pissarro, Rue de Voisins, 1871. Oil on canvas, 46 x 55.5 cm. Manchester City Galleries, Manchester, UK

War and Insurrection (29) - Return to ParisSome sources say Manet returned to Paris during the Week of Blood (22-28 May 1871). Other sources claim that he only arrived in the beginning of June. I tend to believe this second version, because his litho and drawing “Guerre civile” and “La barricade” look more inspired by older paintings than by actual street scenes. Anyway, Manet was genuinely shocked by what he saw and to my knowledge, he is the only one of the core group of impressionists that actually depicted the horror.Manet could only rescue a limited number of paintings from his destroyed studio in the rue Guyot. His most treasured works were safe however: he had stored Le Balcon, Olympia, Le déjeuner sur l’herbe and nine other works in the cellar of the art critic Théodore Duarte on the Rue des Capucines.
Edouard Manet, L’explosion, 1871. Oil on canvas, 37.5 x 45.5 cm. Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany.

War and Insurrection (29) - Return to Paris
Some sources say Manet returned to Paris during the Week of Blood (22-28 May 1871). Other sources claim that he only arrived in the beginning of June. I tend to believe this second version, because his litho and drawing “Guerre civile” and “La barricade” look more inspired by older paintings than by actual street scenes. Anyway, Manet was genuinely shocked by what he saw and to my knowledge, he is the only one of the core group of impressionists that actually depicted the horror.
Manet could only rescue a limited number of paintings from his destroyed studio in the rue Guyot. His most treasured works were safe however: he had stored Le BalconOlympia, Le déjeuner sur l’herbe and nine other works in the cellar of the art critic Théodore Duarte on the Rue des Capucines.

Edouard Manet, L’explosion, 1871. Oil on canvas, 37.5 x 45.5 cm. Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany.

War and Insurrection (28)When Manet returned to Paris in the beginning of June 1871, right after the so-called “Semaine sanglante” (the Week of Blood” of 22-28 March), he was shocked and grieved by what he saw.He made this “Civil War”, showing 2 victims shot down behind a barricade. The central figure, presumably a national guardsman, still carries the white flag of surrender that couldn’t save him from the ruthless wrath of the “Versailles army” led by Maréchal Patrice de Mac-Mahon. Between twenty or thirty thousand communards were executed by his troops, another forty thousand were taken prisoner. Mac-Mahon was elected French president immediately thereafter.This lithograph was banned by the censorship. It could only be published three years later. By that time, the discontentment with Mac-Mahon’s government had grown so big that feelings of sympathy with those that had fallen for the Commune could again be shown and discussed.
Edouard Manet, Guerre civile (Civil War - Scene from the Paris Commune), 1871. Lithograph, 39.5 x 50.5 cm. Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick ME, USA

War and Insurrection (28)
When Manet returned to Paris in the beginning of June 1871, right after the so-called “Semaine sanglante” (the Week of Blood” of 22-28 March), he was shocked and grieved by what he saw.
He made this “Civil War”, showing 2 victims shot down behind a barricade. The central figure, presumably a national guardsman, still carries the white flag of surrender that couldn’t save him from the ruthless wrath of the “Versailles army” led by Maréchal Patrice de Mac-Mahon. Between twenty or thirty thousand communards were executed by his troops, another forty thousand were taken prisoner. Mac-Mahon was elected French president immediately thereafter.

This lithograph was banned by the censorship. It could only be published three years later. By that time, the discontentment with Mac-Mahon’s government had grown so big that feelings of sympathy with those that had fallen for the Commune could again be shown and discussed.

Edouard Manet, Guerre civile (Civil War - Scene from the Paris Commune), 1871. Lithograph, 39.5 x 50.5 cmBowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick ME, USA